doc. RNDr. Martin Reichard, Ph.D.

Position: full-time researcher
Research topics: evolutionary ecology
Department: Research facility Brno
Phone: +420 543 422 522

Personal webpage

Research interests

  • ageing in natural population and its life history consequences,
  • coevolutionary dynamics in host-parasite associations,
  • mate choice and alternative mating tactics,
  • the impact of invasive species on coevolved relationships.

Running Projects

A novel system to understand brood parasitism: the cuckoo catfish parasiting African cichlids (2018-2020)

Ageing in the wild: from demography to gene expression (2016-2018)

Finished Projects

Demography, metapopulation dynamics and ecology of Nothobranchius fishes in Mozambique

Host specialization and host-race formation in the European bitterling

Personalities, male mating tactics and role of females in sexual selection: studies on fish model systems

Projekt: „Integrace experimentální a populační biologie pomocí nových metod v mezioborové problematice - cesta k excellenci s mladými vědci“ (2012-2015)

Reproductive isolating mechanisms in Nothobranchius annual fishes - the roles of mate choice, ecological divergence and vicariance

Reproductive isolating mechanisms in Nothobranchius fishes (Aplocheilidae)

The effects of non-native species on host-parasite relationships (2015-2017)

The European bitterling - endangered or non-native species in central Europe?

The evolution and life-history consequences of rapid ageing (2011-2015)

The impact of mating tactics on individual reproductive success and population parameters in the European bitterling: behavioural and genetic approach

Current Ph.D. students

  • Jakub Žák: Biology of aging in Nothobranchius fishes. 

  • Daniel García (Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay) – The effects of predation and competition on the life history evolution of fishes with rapid ageing (Consecuencias de las presiones selectivas sobre la evolución de la historia de vida en peces con envejecimiento rápido).

  • Veronika Bartáková: The effects of non-native species on host-parasite relationships (advisor, supervised by J.Bryja).

  • Veronika Nezhybová (Michálková): Parasite-associated changes in fish host physiology and behavior (advisor, supervised by M.Ondračková).

Former PhD students

  • Radomil Řežucha – Sexual selection, reproductive stratgies and personalities in fish model systems,
  • Milan Vrtílek – Evolutionary ecology of African annual fishes.
  • Markéta Konečná – Individual and population consequences of sexual selection in the bitterling fish.



Bartáková V., Bryja J., Reichard M.: Fine-scale genetic structure of the European bitterling at the intersection of three major European watersheds, BMC Evolutionary Biology 18 (2018) .

Blažek R., Polačik M., Smith C., Honza M., Meyer A., Reichard M.: Success of cuckoo catfish brood parasitism reflects coevolutionary history and individual experience of their cichlid hosts, Science Advances 4 (2018) .

García D., Loureiro M., Machín E., Reichard M.: Phenology of three coexisting annual fish species: seasonal patterns in hatching dates, Hydrobiologia 809 (2018) 323-337.

Konečný A., Popa O., Bartáková V., Douda K., Bryja J., Smith C., Popa L. O., Reichard M.: Modelling the invasion history of Sinanodonta woodianain Europe: tracking the routes of a sedentary aquatic invader with mobile parasitic larvae, Evolutionary Applications (2018) .

Lanés L. E. K., Reichard M., De Moura R. G., Godoy R. S., Maltchik L.: Environmental predictors for annual fish assemblages in subtropical grasslands of South America: the role of landscape and habitat characteristics, Environmental Biology of Fishes 101 (2018) 963-977.

Morais P., Reichard M.: Cryptic invasions: a review, Science of the Total Environment (2018) 1438-1448.

Polačik M., Reichard M., Vrtílek M.: Local variation in embryo development rate in annual fish, Journal of Fish Biology 92 (2018) 1359-1370.

Reichard M., Lanés L. E. K., Polačik M., Blažek R., Vrtílek M., Godoy R. S., Maltchik L.: Avian predation mediates size-specific survival in a Neotropical annual fish: a field experiment, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 124 (2018) 56-66.

Smith C., Spence R., Reichard M.: Sperm is a sexual ornament in rose bitterling, Journal of Evolutionary Biology 31 (2018) 1610-1622.

Vrtílek M., Žák J., Polačik M., Blažek R., Reichard M.: Longitudinal demographic study of wild populations of African annual killifish, Scientific Reports 8 (2018) .

Vrtílek M., Žák J., Pšenička M., Reichard M.: Extremely rapid maturation of a wild African annual fish, Current Biology 28 (2018) .

Žák J., Reichard M., Gvoždík L.: Limited differentiation of fundamental thermal niches within the killifish assemblage from shallow temporary waters, Journal of Thermal Biology 78 (2018) 257-262.


Bartáková V., Reichard M.: No effect of recent sympatry with invasive zebra mussel on the oviposition decisions and reproductive success of the bitterling fish, a brood parasite of unionid mussels, Hydrobiologia 794 (2017) 153-166.

Blažek R., Polačik M., Reichard M.: Rasches Wachstum, frühe Reifung und kurze Generationenzeit bei afrikanischen annuellen Fischen., DKG Journal 49 (2017) 131-141.

Blažek R., Polačik M., Kačer P., Cellerino A., Řežucha R., Methling C., Tomášek O., Syslová K., Terzibasi Tozzini E., Albrecht T., Vrtílek M., Reichard M.: Repeated intraspecific divergence in life span and aging of African annual fishes along an aridity gradient, Evolution 71 (2017) 386-402.

Donrovich S. W., Douda K., Plechingerová V., Rylková K., Horký P., Slavík O., Liu H.-Z., Reichard M., Lopes-Lima M., Sousa R.: Invasive Chinese pond mussel Sinanodonta woodiana threatens native mussel reproduction by inducing crossresistance of host fish, Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 27 (2017) 1325-1333.

Douda K., Liu H.-Z., Yu D., Rouchet R., Liu F., Tang Q.-Y., Methling C., Smith C., Reichard M.: The role of local adaptation in shaping fish-mussel coevolution, Freshwater Biology 62 (2017) 1858-1868.

Nezhybová V., Reichard M., Blažek R., Ondračková M.: Metazoan parasites of African annual killifish (Nothobranchiidae): abundance, diversity, and their environmental correlates, Biotropica 49 (2017) 229-238.

Phillips A., Reichard M., Smith C.: Sex differences in the responses to oviposition site cues by a fish revealed by tests with an artificial host, Animal Behaviour 126 (2017) 187-194.

Polačik M., Smith C., Reichard M.: Maternal source of variability in the embryo development of an annual killifish, Journal of Evolutionary Biology 30 (2017) 738-749.

Reichard M., Janáč M., Polačik M., Blažek R., Vrtílek M.: Community assembly in Nothobranchius annual fishes: nested patterns, environmental niche and biogeographic history, Ecology and Evolution 7 (2017) 2294-2306.

Reichard M., Blažek R., Polačik M., Vrtílek M.: Hatching date variability in wild populations of four coexisting species of African annual fishes, Developmental Dynamics 246 (2017) 827-837.

Reichard M.: Evolutionary perspectives on ageing, Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology 70 (2017) 99-107.

Rouchet R., Smith C., Liu H., Methling C., Douda K., Yu D., Tang Q., Reichard M.: Avoidance of host resistance in the oviposition-site preferences of rose bitterling, Evolutionary Ecology 31 (2017) 769-783.

Smith P., Willemsen D., Popkes M., Metge F., Gandiwa E., Reichard M., Valenzano D. R.: Regulation of life span by the gut microbiota in the short-lived African turquoise killifish, eLife 6 (2017) .

Vrtílek M., Polačik M., Reichard M.: The role of energetic reserves during embryonic development of an annual killifish, Developmental Dynamics 246 (2017) 838-847.


Cellerino A., Valenzano D. R., Reichard M.: From the bush to the bench: the annual Nothobranchius fishes as a new model system in biology, Biological Reviews 91 (2016) 511-533.

Lanés L. E. K., Godoy R. S., Maltchik L., Polačik M., Blažek R., Vrtílek M., Reichard M.: Seasonal dynamics in community structure, abundance, body size and sex ratio in two species of Neotropical annual fishes, Journal of Fish Biology 89 (2016) 2345-2364.

Polačik M., Blažek R., Reichard M.: Laboratory breeding of the short-lived annual killifish Nothobranchius furzeri, Nature Protocols 11 (2016) 1396-1413.

Reichard M.: Evolutionary ecology of aging: time to reconcile field and laboratory research, Ecology and Evolution 6 (2016) 2988-3000.

Řežucha R., Reichard M.: The association between personality traits, morphological traits and alternative mating behaviour in male Endler’s guppies, Poecilia wingei, Ethology 122 (2016) 456-467.

Vrtílek M., Reichard M.: Patterns of morphological variation among populations of the widespread annual killifish Nothobranchius orthonotus are independent of genetic divergence and biogeography, Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 54 (2016) 289-298.

Vrtílek M., Reichard M.: Female fecundity traits in wild populations of African annual fish: the role of the aridity gradient, Ecology and Evolution 6 (2016) 5921-5931.


Bartáková V., Reichard M., Blažek R., Polačik M., Bryja J.: Terrestrial fishes: rivers are barriers to gene flow in annual fishes from the African savanna, Journal of Biogeography 42 (2015) 1832-1844.

Keppeler F. W., Lanés L. E. K., Rolon A. S., Stenert C., Lehmann P., Reichard M., Maltchik L.: The morphology–diet relationship and its role in the coexistence of two species of annual fishes, Ecology of Freshwater Fish 24 (2015) 77-90.

Popa O. P., Bartáková V., Bryja J., Reichard M., Popa L. O.: Characterization of nine microsatellite markers and development of multiplex PCRs for the Chinese huge musel Anodonta (Sinanodonta) woodiana Lea, 1834 (Mollusca, Bivalvia), Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 60 (2015) 234-237.

Reichard M., Cellerino A., Valenzano D. R.: Turquoise killifish: quick guide, Current Biology 25 (2015) .

Reichard M., Douda K., Przybylski M., Popa O. P., Karbanová E., Matasová K., Rylková K., Polačik M., Blažek R., Smith C.: Population-specific responses to an invasive species, Proceedings of the Royal Society. B - Biological Sciences 282 (2015) 167-174.

Řežucha R., Reichard M.: Strategic exploitation of fluctuating asymmetry in male Endler’s guppy courtship displays is modulated by social environment, Journal of Evolutionary Biology 28 (2015) 356-367.

Smith C., Philips A., Reichard M.: Cognitive ability is heritable and predicts the success of an alternative mating tactic, Proceedings of the Royal Society. B - Biological Sciences 282 (2015) 1809.

Vrtílek M., Reichard M.: Highly plastic resource allocation to growth and reproduction in females of an African annual fish, Ecology of Freshwater Fish 24 (2015) 616-628.


Chang H.-C., Li F., Shao K.-T., Lin Y.-S., Morosawa T., Kim S., Koo H., Kim W., Lee J.-S., He S., Smith C., Reichard M., Miya M., Sado T., Uehara K., Lavoué S., Chen W.-J., Mayden R. L.: Phylogenetic relationships of Acheilognathidae (Cypriniformes: Cyprinoidea) as revealed from evidence of both nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequence variation: Evidence for necessary taxonomic revision in the family and the identification of cryptic species, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 81 (2014) 182-194.

Liao C., Yu D., Chen Y., Reichard M., Liu H.: Reproductive behaviour of female rosy bitterling Rhodeus ocellatus in response to a female-biased operational sex ratio, Behaviour 151 (2014) 755-768.

Polačik M., Harrod C., Blažek R., Reichard M.: Trophic niche partitioning in communities of African annual fish: evidence from stable isotopes, Hydrobiologia 721 (2014) 99-106.

Polačik M., Blažek R., Řežucha R., Vrtílek M., Terzibasi Tozzini E., Reichard M.: Alternative intrapopulation life-history strategies and their trade-offs in an African annual fish, Journal of Evolutionary Biology 27 (2014) 854-865.

Reichard M., Polačik M., Blažek R., Vrtílek M.: Female bias in the adult sex ratio of African annual fishes: interspecific differences, seasonal trends and environmental predictors, Evolutionary Ecology 28 (2014) 1105-1120.

Reichenbacher B., Reichard M.: Otoliths of five extant species of the annual killifish Nothobranchius from the East African savannah, PLoS ONE 9 (2014) .

Řežucha R., Reichard M.: The effect of social environment on alternative mating tactics in male Endler’s guppy, Poecilia wingei, Animal Behaviour 88 (2014) 195-202.

Smith C., Phillips A., Polačik M., Reichard M.: Male coloration signals direct benefits in the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus), Environmental Biology of Fishes 97 (2014) 335-341.

Smith C., Warren M., Rouchet R., Reichard M.: The function of multiple ejaculations in bitterling, Journal of Evolutionary Biology 27 (2014) 1819-1829.


Bartáková V., Reichard M., Janko K., Polačik M., Blažek R., Reichwald K., Cellerino A., Bryja J.: Strong population genetic structuring in an annual fish, Nothobranchius furzeri, suggests multiple savannah refugia in southern Mozambique, BMC Evolutionary Biology 13 (2013) 196.

Blažek R., Polačik M., Reichard M.: Rapid growth, early maturation and short generation time in African annual fishes, EvoDevo 4 (2013) 24.

Casalini M., Reichard M., Phillips A., Smith C.: Male choice of mates and mating resources in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus), Behavioral Ecology 24 (2013) 1199-1204.

Ercan E., Gaygusuz Ö., Tarkan A. S., Reichard M., Smith C.: The ecology of freshwater bivalves in the Lake Sapanca basin, Turkey, Turkish Journal of Zoology 37 (2013) 730-738.

Smith C., Reichard M.: A sperm competition model for the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus), Behaviour 150 (2013) 1709-1730.

Spence R., Reichard M., Smith C.: Strategic sperm allocation and a Coolidge effect in an externally fertilizing species, Behavioral Ecology 24 (2013) 82-88.

Terzibasi Tozzini E., Dorn A., Ng’oma E., Polačik M., Blažek R., Reichwald K., Petzold A., Watters B. R., Reichard M., Cellerino A.: Parallel evolution of senescence in annual fishes in response to extrinsic mortality, BMC Evolutionary Biology 13 (2013) 77.


Agbali M., Spence R., Reichard M., Smith C.: A comparison of the impact of direct and indirect benefits of mating decisions in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus), Israel Journal of Ecology & Evolution 58 (2012) 279-288.

Blažek R., Ondračková M., Vošlajerová Bímová B., Vetešník L., Petrášová I., Reichard M.: Fish diversity in the Niokolo Koba National Park, middle Gambia River basin, Senegal, Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 23 (2012) 263-272.

Douda K., Vrtílek M., Slavík O., Reichard M.: The role of host specificity in explaining the invasion success of the freshwater mussel Anodonta woodiana in Europe, Biological Invasions 14 (2012) 127-137.

Reichard M., Vrtílek M., Douda K., Smith C.: An invasive species reverses the roles in a host–parasite relationship between bitterling fish and unionid mussels, Biology Letters 8 (2012) 601-604.

Reichard M., Spence R., Bryjová A., Bryja J., Smith C.: Female rose bitterling prefer MHC-dissimilar males: experimental evidence, PLoS ONE 7 (2012) .

Řežucha R., Smith C., Reichard M.: Personality traits, reproductive behaviour and alternative mating tactics in male European bitterling, Rhodeus amarus, Behaviour 149 (2012) 531-553.

Vrtílek M., Reichard M.: An indirect effect of biological invasions: the effect of zebra mussel fouling on parasitisation of unionid mussels by bitterling fish, Hydrobiologia 696 (2012) 205-214.

White Seth M., Ondračková M., Reichard M.: Hydrologic connectivity affects fish assemblage structure, diversity, and ecological traits in the unregulated Gambia River, West Africa, Biotropica 44 (2012) 521-530.


Dorn A., Ng'oma E., Janko K., Reichwald K., Polačik M., Platzer M., Cellerino A., Reichard M.: Phylogeny, genetic variability and colour polymorphism of an emerging animal model: the short-lived annual Nothobranchius fishes from southern Mozambique, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61 (2011) 739-749.

Konečná M., Reichard M.: Seasonal dynamics in population characteristics of European bitterling Rhodeus amarus in a small lowland river, Journal of Fish Biology 78 (2011) 227-239.

Mehner T., Freyhof J., Reichard M.: Summary and perspective on evolutionary ecology of fishes, Evolutionary Ecology 25 (2011) 547-556.

Pateman-Jones C., Rasotto M. B., Reichard M., Liao C., Liu H., Zieba G., Smith C.: Variation in male reproductive traits among three bitterling fishes (Acheilognathinae: Cyprinidae) in relation to the mating system, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 103 (2011) 622-632.

Polačik M., Reichard M.: Asymmetric reproductive isolation between two sympatric annual killifish with extremely short lifespans, PLoS ONE 6 (2011) .

Polačik M., Donner M. T., Reichard M.: Age structure of annual Nothobranchius fishes in Mozambique: is there a hatching synchrony?, Journal of Fish Biology 78 (2011) 796-809.

Reichard M., Bryja J., Polačik M., Smith C.: No evidence for host specialization or host-race formation in the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus), a fish that parasitizes freshwater mussels, Molecular Ecology 20 (2011) 3631-3643.


Agbali M., Reichard M., Bryjová A., Bryja J., Smith C.: Mate choice for nonadditive genetic benefits correlate with MHC dissimilarity in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus), Evolution 64 (2010) 1683-1696.

Bryja J., Smith C., Konečný A., Reichard M.: Range-wide population genetic structure of the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus) based on microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analysis, Molecular Ecology 19 (2010) 4708-4722.

Casalini M., Reichard M., Smith C.: The effect of crowding and density on male mating behaviour in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus), Behaviour 147 (2010) 1035-1050.

Janáč M., Ondračková M., Jurajda P., Valová Z., Reichard M.: Flood duration determines the reproduction success of fish in artificial oxbows in a floodplain of a potamal river, Ecology of Freshwater Fish 19 (2010) 644-655.

Konečná M., Smith C., Reichard M.: Population and individual consequences of breeding resource availability in the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus), Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 64 (2010) 1069-1079.

Polačik M., Reichard M.: Diet overlap among three sympatric African annual killifish species (Nothobranchius spp.) from Mozambique, Journal of Fish Biology 77 (2010) 754-768.

Reichard M., Watters B. R., Wildekamp R. H., Sonnenberg R., Nagy B., Polačik M., Valdesalici S., Cellerino A., Cooper B. J., Hengstler H., Rosenstock J., Sainthouse I.: Potential negative impacts and low effectiveness in the use of African annual killifish in the biocontrol of aquatic mosquito larvae in temporary water bodies, Parasites & Vectors 3 (2010) 89.

Reichard M., Polačik M., Tarkan A. S., Spence R., Gaygusuz Ö., Ercan E., Ondračková M., Smith C.: The bitterling–mussel coevolutionary relationship in areas of recent and ancient sympatry, Evolution 64 (2010) 3047-3056.

Reichard M., Polačik M.: Reproductive isolating barriers between colour-differentiated populations of an African annual killifish, Nothobranchius korthausae (Cyprinodontiformes), Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 100 (2010) 62-72.

Reichard M.: Nothobranchius kadleci (Cyprinodontiformes: Nothobranchiidae), a new species of annual killifish from central Mozambique, Zootaxa 2332 (2010) 49-60.


Casalini M., Agbali M., Reichard M., Konečná M., Bryjová A., Smith C.: Male dominance, female mate choice and intersexual conflict in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus), Evolution 63 (2009) 366-376.

Konečná M., Jurajda P., Reichard M.: River discharge drives recruitment success of the European bitterling Rhodeus amarus in a regulated river in central Europe, Journal of Fish Biology 74 (2009) 1642-1650.

Polačik M., Reichard M.: Indirect fitness benefits are not related to male dominance in a killifish, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63 (2009) 1427-1435.

Reichard M., Ondračková M., Bryjová A., Smith C., Bryja J.: Breeding resource distribution affects selection gradients on male phenotypic traits: experimental study on lifetime reproductive success in the bitterling fish (Rhodeus amarus), Evolution 63 (2009) 377-390.

Reichard M., Polačik M., Sedláček O.: Distribution, colour polymorphism and habitat use of the African killifish, Nothobranchius furzeri, the vertebrate with the shortest life span, Journal of Fish Biology 74 (2009) 198-212.

Smith C., Pateman-Jones C., Zieba G., Przybylski M., Reichard M.: Sperm depletion as a consequence of increased sperm competition risk in the European bitterling, Rhodeus amarus, Animal Behaviour 77 (2009) 1227-1233.


Jurajda P., Peňáz M., Reichard M., Bernardová I.: Water quality improvements following political changes, enhanced fish communities, and fisheries in the Czech Republic, American Fisheries Society Symposium 49 (2008) 845-850.

Reichard M.: Microhabitat use by fishes in the middle course of the River Gambia in the Niokolo Koba National Park, Senegal: a unique example of an undisturbed West African assemblage, Journal of Fish Biology 72 (2008) 1815-1824.

Reichard M., Smith C., Bryja J.: Seasonal change in the opportunity for sexual selection, Molecular Ecology 17 (2008) 642-651.

Zaki S. A. H., Jordan W. C., Reichard M., Przybylski M., Smith C.: A morphological and genetic analysis of the European bitterling species complex, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 95 (2008) 337-347.