Interspecific brood parasitism represents a prime example of the coevolutionary arms race where each party has evolved strategies in response to the other.

Sperm competition represents an important component of post-copulatory sexual selection.

The impact of multiple invading species can be magnified owing to mutual facilitation—termed ‘invasional meltdown’—but invasive species can also be adversely affected by their interactions with other invaders.

Species living in East African montane forests have highly fragmented distributions.